In the decades following the Second World War, the British government increasingly turned to covert operations as a means of achieving their foreign policy goals. In Disrupt and Deny: Spies, Special Forces, and the Secret Pursuit of British Foreign Policy
(Oxford University Press, 2018), Rory Cormac
describes the establishment of covert action as a tool of foreign policy and the various ways in which it was applied. As he explains, covert action was initially seen as a tool of warfare the use of which was inappropriate in times of peace. This view changed with the burgeoning Cold War, as covert actions ranging from propaganda campaigns to direct political and economic manipulations of other countries were often viewed as effective means of achieving British foreign policy goals in ways less expensive and overtly confrontational than more traditional methods. Though the British employed such efforts cautiously in Europe, they were far less restrained in doing the territories of their former empire, believing that such efforts were a useful means of maintaining their influence throughout the world.