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Spiritual Empires in Europe and India

Cosmopolitan Religious Movements from 1875 to the Interwar Era

Palgrave Macmillan 2021

Spiritual Empires in Europe and India: Cosmopolitan Religious Movements from 1875 to the Interwar Era (Palgrave MacMillan, 2021) provides a comparative analysis of cosmopolitan (esoteric) religious movements, such as Theosophy, Groupe Independent des Études Ésotériques, Anthroposophy, and Monism, in England, France, Germany, and India during the late nineteenth-century to the interwar years. Ultimately, it illustrates how an innovative religious discourse converged with the secular world and became applied to envision a new social order—to spiritually re-engineer the world.

Raj Balkaran is a scholar, online educator, and life coach. For information see rajbalkaran.com.

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